Hydraulic Valve Installation

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Since a flow-control valve meters flow in one direction only, the inlet and outlet ports must be correctly connected in a circuit in relation to the flow direction to be metered. A valve’s drain connection must be piped to a tank so that a connection will not be subjected to possible pressure surges. The location of a flow-control valve with respect to workload has an affect on a circuit’s operating characteristics. The three basic types of flow-control valve installations are the meter-in, meter-out, and bleedoff circuits.

a. Meter-In Circuit (Figure 5-37). With this circuit, a flow-control valve is installed in a pressure line that leads to a work cylinder. All flow entering a work cylinder is first metered through a flow-control valve. Since this metering action involves reducing flow from a pump to a work cylinder, a pump must deliver more fluid than is required to actuate a cylinder at the desired speed. Excess fluid returns to a tank through a relief valve. To conserve power and avoid undue stress on a pump, a relief valve’s setting should be only slightly higher than a working pressure’s, which a cylinder requires.

meter in circuit Hydraulic Valve Installation

A meter-in circuit is ideal in applications where a load always offers a positive resistance to flow during a controlled stroke. Examples would be feeding grinder tables, welding machines, milling machines, and rotary hydraulic motor drives. A flow-control-and-check valve used in this type of circuit would allow reverse free flow for the return stroke of a cylinder, but it would not provide control of return stroke speed.

b. Meter-Out Circuit (Figure 5-38). With a meter-out circuit, a flow-control valve is installed on the return side of a cylinder so that it controls a cylinder’s actuation by metering its discharge flow. A relief valve is set slightly above the operating pressure that is required by the type of work.

meter out circuit Hydraulic Valve Installation

This type of circuit is ideal for overhauling load applications in which a workload tends to pull an operating piston faster than a pump’s delivery would warrant. Examples would be for drilling, reaming, boring, turning, threading, tapping, cutting off, and cold sawing machines. A flow-control-and-check valve used in this circuit would allow reverse free flow, but it would not provide a control of return stroke speed.

c. Bleed-Off Circuit. A typical bleed-off circuit is not installed directly in a feed line. It is Td into this line with its outlet connected to a return line. A valve regulates flow to a cylinder by diverting an adjustable portion of a pump’s flow to a tank. Since fluid delivered to a work cylinder does not have to pass through a flow-control valve, excess fluid does not have to be dumped through a relief valve. This type of circuit usually involves less heat generation because pressure on a pump equals the work resistance during a feed operation.

d. Compensated Flow. The flow-control valves previously discussed do not compensate for changes in fluid temperature or pressure and are considered noncompensating valves. Flow rate through these valves can vary at a fixed setting if either the pressure or the fluid’s temperature changes. Viscosity is the internal resistance of a fluid that can stop it from flowing. A liquid that flows easily has a high viscosity. Viscosity changes, which can result from temperature changes, can cause low variations through a valve. Such a valve can be used in liquid-powered systems where slight flow variations are not critical consideration factors.

However, some systems require extremely accurate control of an actuating device. In such a system, a compensated flow-control valve is used. This valve automatically changes the adjustment or pressure drop across a restriction to provide a constant flow at a given setting. A valve meters a constant flow regardless of variation in system pressure. A compensated flow-control valve is used mainly to meter fluid flowing into a circuit; however, it can be used to meter fluid as it leaves a circuit. For clarity, this manual will refer to this valve as a flow regulator.

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  1. gud, but needed more explanation………..

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